What is # apartheid?
In Nepal, the prevalence of apartheid, political discrimination, social discrimination, casteism, language discrimination, education, employment, discrimination, discrimination against the Madheshi, Pahari tribes, tribal and Lopunmukh castes should be the end of equality and egalitarian society.
# Meaning, policy and consequences of apartheid
The word “apartheid” or “Apartheid” is made up of the words ‘Apart’ and “Hood” in the English language. In practice, its simple meaning is considered ‘apartheid’. It is also called the policy of varna separation. The policy of species segregation began in the colonial period of South Africa and continued until the middle of the 20th century. After the general election in 1948, the government of the National Party of South Africa divided the residents living on the political, geographical, social, cultural, economic and nasal lines into white, black, mixed varnas and Indians etc. Launched the policy called ‘Apartheid’ policy. This system existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1994. It was later divided on policy grounds as Grand Apartheid and Petty Apartheid.
In the general elections of 1948, the National Party got a very simple majority. He formed a government in alliance with another political party. The National Party introduced the policy of apartheid as soon as it came to power and started to implement. A man named Werner Aaselin was appointed to design the system, which suggested the political division of South Africa for white superiority in the past. In this way, this policy became controversial in its early period itself. The greatest contribution to the development of apartheid policy is believed to be that of Hendrick French Varvoerd, who was then the supremely influential leader. The implementation of apartheid policy first features the case of Daniel François Malan who was a strong supporter of apartheid policy and became the first Prime Minister. It passed a law called the Group Areas Act in 1950, which later became the focal point of the apartheid system. This law racially defined each individual in South Africa. By this law, the inhabitants of Africa were divided geographically. A separate etiquette act was passed in 1953 under the apartheid policy, by which different practice areas were reserved for people of different castes. The law also categorized playgrounds, buses, hospitals, schools, universities, and even park benches and beaches. Notice of seating in public places on the basis of blister color, color and caste was issued. It became normal to have such notice boards. In order to prevent the migration of white people to the area, special identification cards were made necessary for people of blacks and other mortals. An Act was introduced in Parliament in 1951 to deprive people of mixed character. But after some people challenged it in the court and declared it illegal by the court, it was quickly changed by the Nationalist government in the member numbers of the judiciary and legislature. In this way, the Separate Representation of Voters Act was passed in 1956 as soon as the Nationalists had a majority in the High Court and Parliament, in which the mixed cast logo was also denied the general franchise.
In addition to the above laws, the then government enacted several laws in support of the apartheid policy, including the Mixed-Marriage Prohibition Act which prohibited marriages between people of different kinds of drugs, the Immortality Act-1950. ‘Population Registration Act-1950’, by which identity cards were issued on racial grounds, the Suppression of Communism Act-1950; The South African Communist Party was banned by or any other party that declared government inspired by Communist ideology could be banned, and
Bantu Education Act-1953, by which separate educational institutions were established for different Afrikan students, etc. were the laws which destroyed the political and geographical unity of the whole of South Africa. .
As a result of the policy of apartheid, 10 self-governed areas for blacks were established. It was so-called ‘Homelands’. In 1970, the Black Home Land Citizenship Act was enacted by which the citizenship of blacks was limited in the name of the Homeland Special Act. This law prohibited the act of blacks entering white territories. The worst form of this policy emerged when spouses of different species were separated from each other and children from parents. Efforts were made to divide the entire southern Africa into several states by stopping the process of urbanization in the area of blacks.
Colonialism and apartheid policy in South Africa had a profound impact on women. Apartheid policy had major devastating consequences from the point of view of women. At this time, women were actually victims of double exploitation. The first was racial discrimination and second was gender discrimination. Under this policy, women did not have any kind of legal safeguards for education, nor did they have any rights over property. Employment opportunities were very low and if they worked in the agricultural sector, they would get very little wages. Minority groups other than women who came to work in the gold mines around Johannesburg were confused about their position because they did not represent any of the four classes classified under apartheid policy Were . It is worth mentioning here that among these countries such as Taiwan, South Korea, Japan etc., which had diplomatic relations with South Africa, were accorded honorary whites and thus had all the facilities that white people had. However, South Africa continued to fall alone in the international fraternity due to its apartheid policy.
The apartheid policy also had a subtle positive effect on the inhabitants of South Africa. Pornography, gambling, abortion and sex education were banned under the social protectionism of the National Party. Liquor shops and cinemas were controlled. Apartheid emphasized the self-reliance and autonomy of various religious and cultural groups in self-governed homelands. People of different classes were imparted education in their mother tongue, due to which it became easy for these classes to get education and spread and propagation of education in these classes. This was a very rare event because at that time the practice of teaching only in the colonized languages of French, English etc. was generally prevalent in South Africa. In fact, the imparting of education through vernacular languages was done to promote division according to apartheid, but it also led to many positive results. Apartheid policy had reached its peak by the 1970s. Although opposition to this policy started initially from both inside and outside South Africa, its active opposition started in the late 70s.
It was only in 1949 that the youth wing of the African National Congress took up the reins of this institution and started opposing apartheid policy. Later South Africa got rid of apartheid policy under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, the famous leader of this institution. In 1950, the African National Congress launched the Black Nationalist Program. Young black leaders believed that white superiority could only be overthrown by mass movements. For this they chose the path of strike-chains, boycotts and civil disobedience movements. In 1959, a group that was disillusioned with the liberal policies of the African National Congress, founded the “Pan-Africanist Congress”, known for its fierce protests. Furious protests were organized on 21 March 1960 under the leadership of this organization. During this time, about 70 people died in the action of police forces during a demonstration called Sharpeville.
After this demonstration, the National Party government became apprehensive and declared a state of emergency throughout South Africa. About 18 thousand people were arrested. Most of these people were leaders and activists of the African National Congress and the Pan-African Congress. The government exerted its full force to suppress this movement. As a result, most of the agitators went underground due to this rapid government response. Some were burnt to death and the remaining leaders were angry with the suppression of the movement and started preparing for the terrorist and violent movement.
In May 1961, while South Africa was to be declared a republic, the African National Congress attempted to build a consensus by gathering various classes, groups and parties, and warned the government that if they were ignored, the Republic’s launch ceremony Will be opposed. But the government remained adamant and ignored the rebels on the occasion of declaring South Africa a republic. As a result, the rebels, including 42-year-old Nelson Mandela, started agitating and staging demonstrations. In response, the government tried to forcefully suppress the movement. This reaction of the government angered the African National Congress and started its efforts to prepare for armed struggle. For this, he set up a Militry wing. Later, on December 16, 1961, on the anniversary of the Battle of the Khuni River, the military wing started an armed struggle against the South African government. Students have an important role in any movement. Students of South Africa also started the struggle against apartheid, inspired by the ‘American Black Power Movement’. In 1970, the ‘Black Consciousness Movement’ was launched. In 1976, 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1986, several boycott movements were continuously organized by the students. These movements have a special place in the eradication of apartheid from South Africa.
Apart from students, workers and women also played an important role against apartheid. In 1973-74, the first reaction against apartheid was made by the workers. Gradually the resistance of the workers increased with the passage of time. By 1976, the workers and workers had come to understand that the policy of apartheid was harmful to their interests. They now wanted to unite against apartheid and contribute significantly to its eradication. Apart from this, there was also a small class among the whites who were against apartheid. The class was led by white leaders such as Helen Suzman, Coleen Egglin and Harry Schwarz. His contribution is mainly known to raise the problems of blacks in Parliament. Apart from this widespread opposition, pressure was also created by many nations at the international level. Economic, political sanctions were imposed on South Africa. South Africa became almost a lonely nation due to the boycott of sports and cultural activities. The United Nations sanctions against South Africa also played an important role in creating an atmosphere against apartheid policy. Constant pressure on national and international level in opposition to apartheid and forced by the immense popularity of Nelson Mandela, leader of African National Congress, the government of National Party led by P. W. Botha finally softened its stand and reforms Oriented towards In fact, this was the point when apartheid in South Africa led to the collapse.
Nelson Mandela, who was incarcerated at that time, was contacted by the Botha government and provided some facilities in the jail. People were allowed to meet them. Even Nelson Mandela could now interview the press and media. In addition, the Homeland was given the status of a national state. Laws regarding entry, identification, etc. made for blacks were repealed. A number of positive steps were being taken by Botha that he had to resign on February 13, 1990, and D. Clarke took over the reins of power. Although D. Clarke was considered to be of narrow instinct in his early political life, he carried forward Botha’s reformist program.